Software testing is a very crucial process. So, it is important to have the best results. If you are looking forward to perform software testing, then you must understand the basics of software testing.
But, how do you define software testing? If you think it is a process done to prove the program is error free, or the software functions are performed properly, then you are wrong. It is none of these; it is just a simple task which helps locate errors. It is the process that measures the quality of an already developed program
Now since the definition is clear, it is important to know, what the goal of software testing is. If you go by the definition, then it has two goals. The first is to find any cases where the program does not do the desired things. This goal refers to specifications not satisfied by the program.
The second goal is to find any such cases where the program performs any functions not expected from it. This is a reference to any side effects.
Now, the types of software testing! Well, there are basically three types of software testing: white box, black box, and gray box testing.
White box testing refers to the state the internal data structures, algorithms and code accessible to the tester. Black box testing refers to the state where the tester treats the software without any understanding of the behavior of the internals. Grey testing is a state where a client-server environment is tested, and the tester has control over the input.
Now, you should understand about the levels of testing. The first one is unit testing that tests every small component or module of the software. Each software unit is tested to verify the correct implementation of the detailed design
The second is integration testing. It is a testing that exposes any defects in the interfaces and interaction between the software’s integrated components or modules.
Now, the third, the functional testing! It tests whether the software functions properly, according to the specifications at various levels. These levels could be class, module, interface, or system.
The fourth is the system testing, which tests a fully integrated system to verify it meets the requirements.
The fifth is the system integration testing that verifies a system’s integration to any external or third party systems defined in the system requirements.
The last is the acceptance testing. It may be conducted by the end-user, customer, or client. It is done to validate the product.
These basics of software testing are very important. So, you must understand them before you start with software testing.